Date: 01/1993
Journal: JOE

1. Endex info: – 3rd generation EAL. Measures max impedance difference bw lip clip and file probe (greatest at apical constriction). Can be used in presence of purulent exudate, blood, and/or NaOCl.
2. Average apical constriction (minor diameter) is located 0.5-0.65mm coronal to apical foramen (Kuttler)
3. Endex had consistent readings for both necrotic and vital cases.