Date: 06/2007
Journal: PLoS Med.

Summary : There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false.​ The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field.​ A research […]

Summary : Two main approaches are used to draw statistical inferences: frequentist and bayesian.​​ The frequentist approach dominates the medical literature. ​​ Clinical decision making is fundamentally bayesian. ​​ Bayesians interpret the test result not as a probability of a false positive but as the degree to which a positive or negative result adjusts the probability of a given disease. ​​ […]

Date: 01/2006
Journal:   J Dent Educ.

Summary : Purpose:  To provide a benchmark that faculty and academic planners can use to assess the degree to which their curricula include learning experiences associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, self-directed learning, and other cognitive skills necessary for dental school graduates to ultimately become expert performers as they develop professionally in the years after graduation. Most highlighted […]

Date: 01/2017
Journal: Arch Oral Biol

Summary : Cochrane conceived the basic concept of systematic reviews and is now considered one of the pioneers and founders of evidence-based medicine.​ The systematic review incipiently recommended by Cochrane in 1972 has undergone many changes and improvements in the last four decades.​ Cochrane Collaboration ( has a role in orienting, preparing and maintaining systematic reviews.​ The first point […]

Date: 01/2008
Journal: Seminar of Hematology

Summary : Twelve P- Value Misconceptions: If P=.05, the null hypothesis has only a 5% chance of being true.​ A non significant difference (eg , p.>or =.05) means there is no different between groups.​ A statically significant finding is clinically important.​ Studies with p values on opposite sides of .05 are conflicting .​ Studies with the same p values provide the same […]

Date: 01/2003
Journal: Int J Epidemio

Summary : Berkson critiqued the p value but did not offer a real alternative.​ Fisher pointed out that it may be difficult to limit what we call ‘null’ and ‘alternative’ hypothesis.​ Goodman presented an alternative to the P-value: ​ The likelihood ratio: The LR is defined as the ratio of the data’s probability under two hypotheses: The P-value […]

Date: 01/2009
Journal: JADA

Summary: ​ This article covered several of the basic concepts that underlie the majority of statistical analyses reported in the clinical research literature: variability, hypothesis testing, CIs and sample size.  Variability : Is the source of uncertainty in clinical studies.  Measures of variability: Standard deviation (SD) : is the distribution of the sample  data around the sample mean. Small SD little variability. ​ […]

Summary: Summary:  ​ Purpose:  To present the essential principles of the evaluation of scientific publications.  Most highlighted Results:   Methods contain essential data for appraisal of the study’s validity. It should cover all stages of planning, details about study sample, the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the statistical methods used. ​ An approval of an appropriate ethics committee should be […]