Safety of electronic apex locators and pulp testers in patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter/defibrillators

By Wilson BL, Broberg C, Baumgartner JC, Harris C, Kron J.

Date: 01/2006
Journal: JOE


  • Purpose: to evaluate possible interactions of EAL/EPT use on Implanted Cardiac Pacemakers(ICP) or Cardioverter/Defibrillators (ICD) in adult patients.
  • N=27 patients with ICP, ICD.
  • Materials/Methods:

  • 5 first patients, testing done in the electrophysiology lab, the rest in the cardiac follow up clinic.
  • Study consisted of 7phases: phase1 (baseline rest), phase2 (root ZX), phase 3 (rest), phase4( endo-analyzer as EAL), phase5( rest), phase 6 (endo-analyzer as EPT).
  • Continuous electrocardiogram monitoring and device interrogation to detect interferences during the use of two types of EALs and one EPT .
  • Most highlighted Results:

  • No adverse events were detected in any patient. Specifically, there were no periods of abnormal detection by any pacemaker, no ICD detected any tachyarrhythmia, and no artifacts were observed on any of the intracardiac electrocardiograms. No patient experienced palpitations or any cardiovascular symptom.