A Systematic Review of In Vitro Retrograde Obturation Materials

By Theodosopoulou JN, Niederman R.

Date: 09/2006
Journal: JOE



  (a) to determine which retrograde obturation (root-end filling) material(s) best prevent(s) retrograde dye/ink penetration in vitro, and

(b) to compare these results to the results of in vivo studies.


An electronic search of MEDLINE January 1966 to October, week 4, 2003 was conducted. Studies measuring the passive retrograde dye leakage were included. A 7 score Validity test rated the articles and only included articles with 5 or more. Inclusion criteria were assessed by 2 reviewers.

Most highlighted Results: 

  1. 34 studies met all of the inclusion and validity criteria.

2.Amalgam: lost its sealing ability over time.

3.EBA: lost its sealing ability over time.

4.IRM: reduced sealing ability over time.

5.MTA: reduced sealing ability over time.

6.GP: maintain its sealing ability over time.

7.Composites: maintain their sealing ability over time.

8.GIC: increase sealing ability over time.

9.For time points beyond 10 days the materials that provide the best sealing were, in decreasing order of efficacy: composites GIC amalgam orthograde GP EBA Fig.1,2 Table.5.

Clinical significance:   

MTA and IRM had the least leakage. However, interpreting these results in pts’ should be with caution as these ex-vivo studies do not fully replicates the oral environment.