Purpose: to evaluate statistically the ability of saline (0.9% sodium chloride), 5.25% NaOCI, and 50% citric acid irrigation solutions, used either alone or in various combinations, to remove the superficial debris and the smeared layer during root canal preparation
N= 36 distal roots of extracted human mandibular molars
oSize 10 K-file to pre-determine WL (-1 mm from foramen), Step-back instrumentation
oSample randomly divided into 6 groups (n=6) following irrigation protocol
oG1: 0.9% Saline,
G2: 5.25% NaOCl,
G3: 50% Citric Acid,
G4: 5.25% NaOCl, 50% Citric Acid,
G5: 50% Citric Acid, 5.25% NaOCl,
G6: 5.25% NaOCl final recapitulation with #25 K-file after drying.
oRoots longitudinally grooved, split in half and prepared for SEM
Most highlighted Results:
•NaOCI was significantly better than citric acid in removing superficial debris from the apical third.
•Citric acid significantly better than NaOCI in removing smeared layer from both middle and apical third
•Combination of organic and inorganic solvents (NaOCl and Citric Acid) have been recommended for removal of superficial debris and smeared layer.
•Final recapitulation increased amount of superficial debris
•Use of NaOCl alone did not remove the smeared layer
No single irrigation solution could dissolve organic and inorganic tissues. Combination is advised.