Tissue Dissolution by Sodium Hypochlorite: Effect of Concentration, Temperature, Agitation, and Surfactant

By Stojicic S, Zivkovic S, Qian W, Zhang H, Haapasalo M

Date: 05/2011
Journal: JOE


Purpose: To evaluate the different concentration, temperature, agitation on tissue dissolution. To compare NaOCl/surface active agent to the conventional one.

N= 5/group.


•Samples of bovine meat was used at fixed weight, shape and volume. •Three NaOCl  solutions from two different manufacturers in concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, and 5.8%;

a. conventional regular 1,

b. conventional regular 2, 

c. regular 2 with surface active agent (chlor-Xtra)

•Each concentration was tested under different temperatures (room temp. ,37oC,45oC)

•Different agitation protocols (sonic, ultrasonic, pipetting) was done for a variable duration (25%,50% or 100% of total 5 min).

•Contact angle was measured using extracted teeth after polishing the dentin with 1% and 5.8% NaOCl.

Most highlighted Results:

•Tissue dissolution has direct relationship with the concentration, temperature , agitation.

Agitation had more effect in tissue dissolution than temperature.

Continuous agitation had fastest tissue dissolution. No significant difference between 3 methods of agitation.

•NaOCl/active surface agent had the most effective tissue dissolution in all experimental conditions.

•Chlor-Xtra (5.8%) had the lowest contact angle of the three hypochlorite solutions.

Clinical significance:

Optimizing the concentration, temperature, flow, and surface tension can improve the tissue-dissolving effectiveness of  Sodium hypochlorite.