An evaluation of the use of amalgam, Cavit, and calcium hydroxide in the repair of furcation perforations.

By ElDeeb ME, ElDeeb M, Tabibi A, Jensen JR

Date: 06/1983
Journal: JOE

Purpose:  to compare the clinical, radiographic, and histologic changes that occur in the periodontal tissues in response to three of the most commonly used materials to repair furcation perforations (amalgam, cavit and Ca(OH)2).

N=  64 perforations in premolars and molars of 4 dogs.


•The root canals were prepared and filled with Cavit to the level of pulp chamber.

•A number 4 round bur was used to perforate the furcation area. the perforation cleaned with saline and bleeding a cotton pellet soaked with epinephrine.

•The 64 teeth were divided into 4 equal groups (n=16) according to the material used to fill the perforation site: Amalgam, Cavit, and calcium hydroxide and control (unrepaired).

•Access cavities were sealed with amalgam. RGs were taken post-operatively and during the next 3 months.

•At 3 months animals were sacrificed and the teeth in block sections  were prepared  for histological examination.

Most highlighted Results:

•Amalgam: mild to moderate chronic inflammation, localized bone resorption, new bone in 37% of cases, no epithelium proliferation

•Cavit : mild to moderate chronic inflammation, localized bone resorption, no new bone formation, epithelium proliferation in the furcation areas forming periodontal pocket.

•Calcium hydroxide: moderate to severe inflammation, considerable bone resorption (crater) with periodontal pocket, no new bone, epithelial proliferation in furcation areas.

•Control: moderate to severe inflammation, more pronounced bone resorption, epithelial proliferation in furcation areas

•The most severe reactions occurred in the control group


-Furcation perforations have poor prognosis.

-Amalgam is superior to Cavil and Ca(OH)2 as a sealing material for furcation perforations.