Properties of calcium silicate-monobasic calcium phosphate materials for endodontics containing tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide

By Zamparini F, Siboni F, Prati C1, Taddei P, Gandolfi MG.

Date: 05/2018
Journal: Clin Oral Investig.


Purpose: was to evaluate chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of three premixed calcium silicate materials, marketed for endodontics (BC-Sealer, BC-RRM-Paste, BC-RRM-Putty)


Radiopacity test: samples were compacted into moulds (10.0 mm diameter, 1.0 mm height; n = 3/G), de-moulded ,radiographed [radiopacity equal or higher than 3 mm Al is required by the ISO ]

Setting times: initial and final setting times were measured by evaluating the absence of indentation caused by Gillmore needles (n = 3/G)

Alkalising activity, calcium release, porosity, solubility, water sorption: immersed in deionised water and analyzed for pH and calcium content. The apparent porosity, water sorption and solubility were calculated as percentage of the original weight of the saturated and dry mass (n = 8/G) mass (D)

Surface characterisation and CaPs nucleation: Samples were compacted, immediately immersed in HBSS, after 28 days ageing was evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), elemental dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and micro-Raman spectrometry

Most highlighted Results:

•BC-Sealer and BC-RRM-Paste showed similar initial (23 h), prolonged final (52 h) setting times and good radiopacity (>7 mm Al)

•BC-RRM-Putty showed fast initial (2 h) and final setting times (27 h), excellent radiopacity (> 9 mm Al)

•All materials induced a marked alkalisation (pH 11–12) during the frist 7 days, and then it decreased at 28 days (pH 10–9)

•All materials and showed the release of calcium ions up to 28 days, the highest cumulative release (BC-RRM- Paste > BC- RRM-Putty > BC-Sealer) •Porosity, water sorption and solubility in soaking water (BC-Sealer > BC-RRM- Paste > BC- RRM-Putty)

•After 28 days ageing, a well- distributed mineral layer was present on all samples surface; EDX demonstrated relevant calcium and phosphorous peaks

B-type carbonated apatite and calcite deposits were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy on all the 28-day- aged samples; the deposit thickness was higher on BC-RRM-Paste and BC-RRM-Putty

Clinical significance:
BC premixed endodonic materials improve the sealing ability through the deposition of CaPs at the interface (root end filling, perforation repair, resorption), it may promote bone and periodontal tissue regeneration and enhance the material biocompatibility.