Microscopic Investigation of Root Apexes.

By Kuttler Y.


Purpose: To report the anatomy of root apex in term of location, diameter.

N= 268 extracted teeth. Inclusion criteria: no PA lesion, normal occlusion, and known age.


•Teeth obtained from cadavers , G1:  18-25 Y,  G2: 55 Y and older.

•Roots were cut, pulpectomy done with barbed broach. Canals stained using ink to locate the Apical foramen (AF) and canal.

•According to the location of the AF roots were sectioned MD or BL  in the last 4-5 mm of the root until the ink was visible.

•Samples immersed in eosin and studies under the microscope (21X, 56X). Measurements were done using ocular micrometer (37.5X).

Most highlighted Results:

•In 74% the center of the AF was not coincide with the center of the apex. •The average distance between the center of AF and the apex in G1 (0.5 mm), G2 (0.6 mm).

•Diameter of the minor AF G1 (0.3mm), G2 (0.25mm).

•Diameter of the major AF G1 (0.5mm), G2 (0.7mm).

•Thickness of cementum was G1(0.5mm), G2(0.8mm).

•Dental apexes observed in the study (Fig1).

Clinical significance:

• From the average numbers provided apical size preparation could be estimated.