Root and Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary First Premolars: A Literature Review and Clinical Considerations.

By Ahmad IA, Alenezi MA.

Date: 06/2016
Journal: JOE


Purpose: to review the available literature with respect to the root and root canal morphology of maxillary first premolars and discuss the clinical considerations of this morphology on the various dental procedures.

N= 11,299 teeth


•MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for relevant literature.

•The identified publications were classified into anatomic studies and clinical case reports.

•The data extracted from anatomic studies were tabulated, and weighted averages for certain internal and external morphologic features were calculated.

•The anatomic and developmental variations in the clinical case reports were summarized.

Most highlighted Results: 

  • The majority of maxillary first premolars had 1 root (41.7%) or 2 roots (56.6%).
  • Regardless of the number of roots, the vast majority (86.6%) had 2 root canals, with type IV (2-2) ( which is Weine Class III) being the most common canal configuration (64.8%).
  • The majority of the apical foramina (66.6%) did not coincide with the apical root tip.
  • About 38% of the teeth had lateral canals, 12.3% had apical deltas, and 16.0% had isthmis.
  • The clinical case reports showed that the 3-rooted variant was the most common anatomic variation, and developmental anomalies were rarely reported.

Clinical significance:

•The maxillary first premo- lars are predominantly 2-rooted teeth with 2 root canals.

•Any clinician should be aware about the possible anatomic variations of these teeth.