•Purpose: To undertake a comprehensive literature review of the root and root canal morphology of the mandibular first premolar.
– Published studies citing the anatomy and morphology of mandibular premolars report data (N=6,700) teeth.
– Studies were divided into anatomical studies reporting number of roots, number of canals, and apical morphology.
– Variations because of sex and ethnicity have been reported and case reports of anomalies.
Most highlighted Results:
-98% of the teeth in these studies were single-rooted (Tables).
-The incidence of 2 roots was 1.8%.
-3 roots when reported were found in 0.2% of the teeth studied.
-4 roots were rare and were found in less than 0.1% of the teeth.
-Studies of the internal canal morphology revealed that a single canal was present in 75.8% of the teeth.
-Two or more canals were found in 24.2% of the teeth studied.
-One apical foramen was found in 78.9% of the teeth and 21.1% had two or more apical foramina.
-Higher incidences of teeth with additional canals and roots were reported in Chinese, Australian, and Africans.
– Sex differences in canal morphology were reported in the study by Sert and Bayirli. They found two or more canals in 44% of the females and 35% of the males in the Turkish population studied.
The root and root canal morphology of this tooth can be complex and requires careful evaluation prior to root canal therapy.