Purpose: To review thoroughly the literature of the root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular second premolar and compare the results with the mandibular first premolar.
N= 7700 Mandibular 2nd premolars from published studies
•These studies were divided into anatomic studies reporting the number of roots, number of canals, and apical anatomy.
•Differences caused by gender and ethnicity have also been reported. •Individual case reports of anomalies were included to demonstrate the extreme range of variation.
Most highlighted Results:
Mandibular 2nd premolars:
•Single-rooted (99.6%), 2 or more roots (0.4%)
•Single canal (91.0%), 2 or more canal systems (9.0%)
•Single apical foramen (91.8%) , 2 or more apical foramina (8.2%).
•Trope et al., found no statistically significant differences in Ethnicity in roots and canals number
•2 studies found a higher incidence of of more than 1 roots and canals in the male patients.
•The incidence of more than (1 root, 1 canal system, and 1 foramen) is lower than that of the mandibular 1ST premolar tooth.
The root and root canal morphology of the mandibular second premolar can be extremely complex and requires careful assessment.